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English-German Dictionary

Online Dictionary English-German: Enter keyword here!
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Guidelines for German-Englishlast updated: 2014-06-30
If you need more information than these guidelines can provide, please see the unofficial manual / FAQ document provided by Tomaquinaten at http://users.dict.cc/tomaquinaten/.

Abbreviations German   

{m}der - männlich (Maskulinum)
{f}die - weiblich (Femininum)
{n}das - sächlich (Neutrum)
{pl}die - Mehrzahl (Plural)
  
[österr.]österreichisch
[südd.]süddeutsch
[nordd.]norddeutsch
[ostd.]ostdeutsch
[schweiz.]schweizerisch
[regional]regional gebräuchlich (landschaftlich)
  
[alt]alte Schreibweise (vor 2004)
[ugs.]umgangssprachlich
[fig.]figurativ (in bildlichem, übertragenem Sinn)
[hum.]humoristisch
[pej.]pejorativ (abwertend)
[vulg.]vulgär
[veraltend]außer Gebrauch kommend
[veraltet]nicht mehr gebräuchlich
[geh.]gehoben
[Rsv.]Rechtschreibvariante
(weniger gebräuchlich)
[indekl.]indeklinabel
  
jd.jemand
jdn.jemanden
jdm.jemandem
jds.jemandes
etw.etwas
jd./etw.jemand/etwas
jdn./etw.jemanden/etwas
jdm./etw.jemandem/etwas
  
[Gen.]Genitiv
[Dat.]Dativ
[Akk.]Akkusativ
[+Gen.]wird mit Genitiv gebraucht
[+Dat.]wird mit Dativ gebraucht
[+Akk.]wird mit Akkusativ gebraucht
   

Abbreviations English   

to for verbs
[Br.]British English
[Am.]American English
  
[Aus.]Australian English
[NZ]New Zealand English
[Can.]Canadian English
[Scot.]Scottish English
[Irish]Irish English
[Ind.]Indian English
[S.Afr.]South African English
  
{pl}to stress plural (nouns)
{sg}to stress singular (nouns)
[attr.]only before nouns
[postpos.]only after nouns
[pred.]only after verbs of being/becoming
  
[coll.]colloquial
[fig.]figurative
[hum.]humorous
[pej.]pejorative
[vulg.]vulgar
[dated]dated
[archaic]archaic
[obs.]obsolete
[literary]literary
[spv.]spelling variant (less common)
[sl.]slang
  
sb.somebody
sb.'ssomebody's
sth.something
sb./sth.somebody/something
   

Word Classes

adj adjective
adv adverb/adverbial
past-p past participle
verb verb (infinitive)
pres-p  present participle
prep preposition/adpos.
conj conjunction
pron pronoun
prefix prefix
suffix suffix
noun noun
Assign all (and only those) word classes that are valid for both sides of the translation pair. forum

Subjects

see the subject list

In addition to these tags other short clarifying comments in square brackets, such as "[derb]" or "[rare]" are permitted, too. When using an abbreviation not listed here, it must be absolutely clear in its meaning, otherwise it has to be written out in full.

General Information and Guidelines

This applies to all language pairs. See language-specific information below. In case of questions please ask Paul!

last updated: 2010-07-28  history
1. You can improve dict.cc!

You are invited to contribute to dict.cc by adding new and verifying existing translations. Just try it, even without registration - you cannot do any harm! Every entry has to be checked by several users and an integrated rights management system enables users to gain more voting power over time, according to the quality of their previous votes. Have a look at the system: http://contribute.dict.cc/

last updated: 2013-02-28  history
2. One translation per entry

Each translation of a word is a separate entry within dict.cc. This is necessary to avoid duplicate entries.
Don't change a correct translation only because you know a better one. Post the better one as a new entry instead.

Incorrect:
home ....... Zuhause {n}, Heim {n}, Heimat {f}
(one entry)

Correct:
home ....... Zuhause {n}
home ....... Heim {n}
home ....... Heimat {f}

(three entries)

forum Exception: For longer entries (5+ words per language) it's okay to contain a variation of short words that don't change the meaning: to be devastating to / for sth. would be acceptable as one entry (please use spaces before and after the slash in this case).
Also acceptable as one entry: kitten cowrie / cowry [Melicerona felina, syn.: Cypraea felina, C. felina felina, Palmadusta felina] (scientific names in brackets are included in the word count, they count for both languages).

last updated: 2010-12-10  history
3. Several Correct Variants

RULE OF THUMB
Always confirm the first correct posting!

It only has to be correct. If it's not the best possible version a better translation can be posted as a new entry.

FINE PRINT / DETAILS
If the proposed entry is not the most usual translation of an entry, but is not wrong, please vote to confirm it.

In case of several correct variants within an entry under discussion (different votes), vote for the version posted first, unless the only difference to the first version is a clarifying comment in square brackets (this doesn't cause outvotes).
If the entry is incorrect and the first voting is [del], confirm the [del] vote.

In case of duplicate entries, confirm the one posted first, improve it in case of errors and delete the one posted later.

If you know a different translation or spelling variant or if such a variant emerges in the voting process, please post it as a new entry and indicate (in a comment to the original version, which you are voting for) that you have made such an additional entry. If possible, please notify the supporters of the rejected version.

dict.cc also includes a function to split translations. This should be used sparingly to avoid creating duplicate entries.

last updated: 2009-11-11  history
4. Sorting of Search Results

Search results are sorted and grouped by:
1. the number of words per term
2. the main word classes "other", "verbs" and "nouns"
3. statistical information from the vocabulary trainer

The two main factors can be influenced by contributing users, please see the bracket section below.

last updated: 2013-09-05  history
5. Brackets

Different types of brackets serve different purposes on dict.cc:
<angle> ..... abbreviations/acronyms   (don't count as words for sorting, but act as keywords)
[square] ..... visible comments   (don't count as words for sorting, don't act as keywords)
(round) ....... for optional parts   (count as words for sorting, act as keywords)
{curly} ........ word class definitions   (use word class field instead, except for gender tags like {f}, {pl}, ...)

Example abbreviation:   Abkürzung {f} <Abk.> .............. would be found for the keyword "Abk"
Example comment:        Vorschneider {m} [Gewinde] ... would not be found for the keyword "Gewinde"
(To still find this entry for the keyword "Gewinde" you can search for the term in square brackets: "[Gewinde]")

When searching for "Abkürzung" or "Vorschneider", these examples would be treated as one-word entries, so they would be listed on top of the search results pages. If the brackets were round, the examples would be treated as two-word entries, listed further below.

Square brackets are used for disambiguations, explanations, usage hints or to add prepositions to one-word entries as in fähig [zu], Gefahr {f} [für] or capable [de].

forum If a word, especially a pejorative one, does not have a translation on the same level of language, use an explanation in square brackets. Example: Musel {m} [ugs.] [pej.] ....... [derogatory term for Muslim]

forum Multiple abbreviations are written within one pair of angle brackets, as in Tuesday <Tue., Tu.>.
Don't add comments, such as "less frequent" within angle brackets!

last updated: 2010-06-11  history
6. Inflected Terms

Inflected words (plurals, superlatives, conjugations, ..., except gender-specific forms of adjectives) can be entered as translations if the inflected forms directly correspond with each other. The entries gone ... gegangen or houses ... Häuser {pl} would be okay.

As a rule, the basic forms (lemmata, like "to go", "house") should be entered before inflected forms. For inflected forms it's sufficient to have only a few (the most important) translations. The basic form can vary from language to language (usually it's the infinitive, but, for example, Bulgarian verbs will have the first person form of the present tense). If you're unsure about what the basic form is, you can always post a question in the forum. In case an entry has no basic form, its variants should be entered into the dictionary as separate entries.

The connections between the different forms ("go, went, gone") are not part of the translation entries themselves, they are stored using a separate function of dict.cc. See the menu item "Inflections" for more.

last updated: 2013-01-15  history
7. Word Classes: NOUNS

GENDER TAGS
Nouns are assigned to the "noun" class automatically if a gender or plural tag is inserted.
That's why gender tags - {f}, {n}, {pl}, {ж}, {m.pl}, ..., anything in curly brackets - should only be used with nouns.

In case of expressions consisting of multiple nouns, use the gender tag only for (and immediately after) the grammatically dominant noun, e.g. bicchiere {m} da vino (plural: "i bicchieri da vino").
If there isn't a single grammatically dominant noun, as in "Hinz und Kunz", "Umarmungen und Küsse" or "Wartung, Reparatur und Instandsetzung", don't use gender tags and set the word class to "noun" manually.
For proper nouns or terms taken from foreign languages that consist of multiple words, the gender tag should be placed at the end of the term, e.g. for German: Circulus vitiosus {m}, Cosa Nostra {f}, Crêpe Suzette {f}.

PLURAL / SINGULAR TAGS
For nouns in languages without grammatical gender, such as English, Hungarian or Turkish, use {pl} and {sg} in the respective field to denote plural or singular if unusual or different from the grammatical number in the other language.
If both languages in the pair have no grammatical gender, use the tags when the grammatical number is not the same on both sides.
For collective nouns, such as headquarters, that can be used either as singular or plural depending on the point of view, add [treated as sg. or pl.]. If a noun which is plural in form is always treated as singular, such as cyrogenics, use [treated as sg.]. Adding {pl} or {sg} is not necessary in these cases.

MULTIPLE GENDER TAGS
If a noun can carry multiple grammatical genders while keeping the same meaning, add all tags in a row: Teil {m} {n}.
If a noun's meaning or context differs according to the gender used, use separate entries:
electricista {m} - electrician
electricista {f} - electrician [female]


[female] (or [nő] for Hungarian, [kadın] for Turkish, ...) can be used in languages without gender, for feminine terms with no distinct corresponding female term (eg. politician, neighbour). Examples:
Krankenpflegerin {f}  -  nurse [female]
Touristin {f}  -  turista [nő]


(In some languages, all nouns belonging to one grammatical gender also belong to another (e.g. Norwegian feminine). This specific gender carries the tag {m/f} to indicate that they can be regularly used with grammatical endings specific to both feminine and masculine nouns.)

NOMINALIZATION (Substantivierung)
forum Nominalized words (verbs, adjectives, adverbs used as nouns) are usually added in their indefinite (ein/eine) forms: Echter {m}, Echtes {n}, Echte {pl}. The dict.cc word class for these entries is "noun".
In cases where the definite form is different from the indefinite, it can be added as a new entry in definite form, including the article: das Außergewöhnliche {n} - lo nunca visto {n}, das Wichtigste {n} - the main thing

MANUAL CLASSIFICATION
forum If for any reason a gender tag can't be applied to a specific noun entry, the entry should be manually marked as noun. Nouns used attributively should be marked as "adj", not as "noun" or "attr".

last updated: 2013-03-12  history
8. Word Classes: VERBS

forum Verbs and verb phrases (verbs with compliments or modifiers, which together function syntactically as a verb) should be entered in the infinitive (or corresponding dictionary form) and assigned to the "verb" class. Don't use this class for inflected verb forms like the past tense, the imperative or the present and past participles.

There is no further formal classification of verbs on dict.cc.
forum However, in all new or re-opened entries, transitive and reflexive verbs should be entered together with an abbreviated object like "sth.", "jdm.", "qn.", "jdn./etw.", "etw. [Akk.]", "oneself", "sich" or an example object. Verbs that can be both transitive and intransitive should include the placeholder in parentheses, as in "compter (qc.)".

last updated: 2013-09-27  history
9. Word Classes: OTHER

ADJECTIVES, including nouns and participles used as adjectives, have to be assigned to the class "adj". When adjective and adverb forms are identical on both sides, both classes can be assigned, otherwise separate entries must be made.
Additional grammar information can optionally be given using one of the following comments:
-- [attr.] for adjectives used only before nouns they modify and which cannot be used after verbs of being or becoming;
-- [postpos.] for adjectives used only after nouns they modify or verbs they accompany;
-- [pred.] for adjectives used only after verbs of being or becoming.

PARTICIPLES in addition should be classified as "pres-p" or "past-p", according to their tense.

ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS AND PRONOUNS have to be classified manually (adv, prep, conj, pron). The "adv" tag is used for both adverbs and adverbial phrases.
Interjections and exclamations should be classed "[none]".
Gender in pronouns can be indicated by using the appropriate gender abbreviation in square brackets, e.g. [f], [n], [pl], [ж], [m.pl], ..., Don't use curly brackets, these are reserved for nouns!

OTHER WORD CLASSES
Entries that do not belong to any specific word class (part of speech, lexical category), such as whole sentences, examples and fixed expressions, as well as cardinal numbers, should be marked with "[none]".

last updated: 2011-07-22  history
10. Subject Labels (like med.)

Up to three subjects can be assigned to each entry. The assignment can be changed by reasonably experienced users (>50 votes) anytime. This change is visible immediately, without approval from other users.
There is a fixed catalog of subjects, changeable only after discussion in the contribute section of the forum.
If a translation entry could be assigned to more than three subjects, please either use no subject at all, or only the widest and most typical ones.

last updated: 2009-11-11  history
11. Works of Fiction

Names and titles of works of fiction (cinema, television, literature, music) should be included in the subject [F] to separate them from other entries. Only terms of general interest should be added.

If one of the languages of the pair is the original language of the work's title, please also include the name of the author (director) of the work of fiction on that side. If the original title of the work of fiction is in a third language, you may include the author's name on either side.

last updated: 2013-09-05  history
12. Optional Additional Information (within bot, med, chem, ...)

LATIN NAMES are not required, but when added they have to be placed in the left column, within square brackets [].

forum UPDATE/CHANGE 2013-09-05
CHEMICAL FORMULAS
are not required, but when added they have to be placed in the left column, within square brackets [].
Only single elements from the periodic table like <Fe> and commonly used abbreviations like <CO2> are considered abbreviations to be enclosed in angle brackets.

last updated: 2011-07-14  history
13. Non-standard terms [with standard terms in comments]

forum Preferred form: non-standard term [ugs./obs./pej./...] [standard term]
Existing variants that don't need to be changed: non-standard term [ugs./obs./pej./... für/for: standard term]
The following form is ambiguous and should be avoided: non-standard term [ugs./obs./pej./...: standard term]

Use:           tumbrel [obs.] [ducking stool]  ... Means that "tumbrel" is obsolete, and there is another word for it.
Don't use:  tumbrel [obs.: ducking stool]    ... It's not clear to everyone which one of the words is meant to be obsolete.

last updated: 2013-06-27  history
14. Audio Recordings

forum Please verify recordings that are pronounced correctly, are clearly audible, conform to the text displayed and are on native speaker level (regardless of actually being a native speaker). Please do not regard your own intonation as the only one possible. Noises inaudible or almost inaudible with medium-quality speakers (headphones) are not a reason for deletion.

Different accents are welcome, as each word can be recorded by several users. Ideally, each word will be recorded by several native speakers from different regions (and of different age, gender, ...) someday. The terms should be pronounced in standard language, not in dialect, except for dialect (regional) terms tagged as such.

Audio contributors are asked to provide native/resident country and region (accent) information in their profile. If several factors influenced the accent, please give details using the region (accent) field.

Abbreviations in angle brackets can be recorded if useful (used in verbal communication), but they are not required.

last updated: 2014-06-30  history
15. Other Rules

- Placeholders for "somebody" and "something", like sb., sth., jd., etw., jdm., ..., and their equivalents in other languages are written in lower case letters even if they appear at the beginning of an entry.

- English names for plants and animals are not capitalized (exception: places/people as in "Chinese bellflower").

- When using three dots (...) please separate them from the previous (and/or following) word.

- For the use of hyphens in English please see #628635 and #656776.

- For formatting questions not covered in the guidelines, please check the existing vocabulary for similar cases.
If you don't find clear conventions, please discuss the issue using the Contribute section of the forum or ask Paul before adding or re-opening translations.

- Don't reopen translations in bulk (more than 10 entries, in rapid succession and for the same reason) without prior discussion in the forum. #702202

- Don't use reopen or undelete to create a different translation pair. #718585

- German spelling rules are applied as provided by Duden at http://www.duden.de/.

- Trade mark entries must include ® or ™ according to the official website of the trademark owner. The trade mark sign is positioned immediately after the trademarked word (separated by a space character). Any gender tag or other information is positioned after the trademark sign.

- Multiple user accounts: It's not allowed to use multiple accounts to manipulate any voting systems, like voting for your own inputs or voting twice for the same entries. Other, non-manipulative uses of multiple accounts are tolerated.

Rules and Conventions: German - English

For types of entries not defined here, just look up similar terms with dict.cc and adjust your formatting accordingly.

last updated: 2009-06-20  history
16. Basic Formatting Rules

Nouns (singular): Include a gender tag in the German column ... Example: Hund {m}
Nouns (plural):    No regular gender tag, just add "{pl}" ............. Example: Hunde {pl}

For multiple-word entries only the most important noun per entry should be tagged.
If the noun is not the most important part of the entry (for example in verb phrases, figures of speech, sentences), don't tag it.

Verbs (infinitive):  Include "to" in the English column ................ Example: to read

Other types: Use the class field to indicate the correct word class.
Nouns and verbs formatted as above will be assigned the correct word class if class field is empty.

last updated: 2010-09-27  history
17. Separable Verbs in Phrases

should be entered as follows:
because sb. took part - weil jd. teilnahm
               sb. took part - jd. nahm teil

last updated: 2010-03-04  history
18. Unofficial Manual / FAQ

Please see section 1.


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English-German online dictionary developed to help you share your knowledge with others. More information!
Contains translations by TU Chemnitz and Mr Honey's Business Dictionary (German-English). Thanks on that account!
Links to this dictionary or to single translations are very welcome! Questions and Answers